The lunar module's
overhead hatch is too narrow to admit an astronaut in a space suit
wearing a backpack. [James Collier]
This is true. The hatch in question is the one over the
astronauts' heads (Fig. 1). When the lunar module and the command
module are connected, this is the hatch through which the astronauts
pass between the modules. (See diagram.)
Fig. 1 - View up into the cabin of LM-13 through the forward
hatch. This is what the astronauts would have seen while
climbing up the ladder into the spacecraft. The opening at
the top is the overhead hatch.
Fig. 2 - View from the interior of LM-13 outward
through the forward hatch.
Collier just assumed the astronauts were wearing a space suit and
back pack (PLSS) any time they went through the overhead hatch. They
weren't; that hatch was only used when the spacecraft were connected
to form one continuous shirt-sleeve environment.
In fact, the PLSSes were actually stored in the lunar module until
they were needed on the lunar surface. You don't need a PLSS every
time you wear a space suit. You can plug your hoses into the
spacecraft's oxygen supply if you aren't going outside. The PLSS is
only for when you're outside the spacecraft. To prepare for an actual
landing, the astronauts could put on their space suit (minus helmets
and gloves) in the command module, go through the connecting tunnel to
the lunar module, and complete the suit-up and pressurization there.
On some of the longer missions the astronauts performed a
"stand-up EVA" shortly after landing on the moon. To do this, they
connected the suits to the LM's oxygen supply, opened the overhead
hatch, and stood on the ascent engine cover to poke their head and
shoulders out of the top of the spacecraft. They were able to get a
good view of the landing site and its surroundings from there. But it
wasn't until they planned to leave the spacecraft altogether that they
needed the PLSS. Then they would go out the forward hatch, which was
reveal that the lunar module's forward hatch actually opened
inward. This would have prevented the astronauts from
egressing the spacecraft as claimed. [James Collier]
The "semi-official" source (how can something be
semi-official?) is The Apollo Adventure: The Making of the
Apollo Space Program and the Movie Apollo 13 by Jeffrey Kluger
with a foreword by Ron Howard (Pocket Books, 1995). Apparently this
book is "semi-official" because Kluger was astronaut Jim Lovell's
co-author for his Apollo 13 memoir Lost Moon. Kluger is
reasonably informed but he does not speak for NASA; and the book is
written for adolescents. The book's facts are correct but Collier's
interpretation is only semi-right.
Fig. 3 - James Collier cites this as an "semi-official"
"An overlooked fact of the lunar module design," it says, "was
that the door opened inward and to the right." Collier interprets
this to mean that Grumman mistakenly had the door open inward
-- i.e., that they and NASA were the ones overlooking the obvious
problem with that. But a better interpretation is that the general
public tends to overlook this. The engineers knew what they were
It's far safer, when designing a pressure vessel such as a
spacecraft cabin, to have the doors open inward rather than outward.
If door opens inward, the air pressure inside keeps it closed by
seating it firmly against the edges of the opening. This will be the
case even if the door latch fails. But if the door is on the outside
of the opening and opens outward, the only thing holding it closed
against the interior pressure would be the latch.
NASA did not provide the
astronauts with any instruction manual for getting out of the LM
around that inward-opening door. [James Collier]
Collier wants us to believe that the absence of such a manual is
suspicious. NASA indeed produced many manuals, checklists, and
procedures for accomplishing space flight. But that in itself does
not justify Collier's suspicion over why no manual was provided for
this particular task. He wants to argue that no astronaut ever
actually got out of a lunar module (see below) and so he hedges this
assertion by playing up the lack of a procedure he says should have
been written. But he never goes any farther than begging the question
of why it should have been written down.
Fig. 5 - Apollo 9 astronaut Rusty Schweickart floats
near the LM porch after having egressed from the lunar module
Spider in Earth orbit. (NASA: AS09-19-2994)
Of course there was a general procedure. But it was left to each
crew to work out the details. (The crews themselves wrote or helped
to write many of the formal procedures and checklists. The assumption
that everything the astronauts did was worked out by someone else is
The forward hatch occupied the middle segment of the front wall of
the cabin (Fig. 2), beneath the center instrument panel. The
commander normally stood to its left and the lunar module pilot (LMP)
stood to the right. After donning their suits and PLSSes, the
pressure was bled away into space and the LMP opened the door. It was
hinged on his side, so he had to crowd toward his side of the cabin
and hold the door open against his legs. The commander would then
turn round, get down on his hands and knees, and back out onto the
porch. After he had gone down the ladder, the LMP could close the
door, move to the commander's side of the cabin, open the door again,
and repeat the commander's procedure.
The ingress procedure was the reverse. The LMP entered first on
hands and knees, stood up and closed the door so that he could move to
his side of the cabin, then held the door open for the commander.
After the commander was in and standing, the door could be sealed and
the cabin again filled with oxygen.
Mission planners found there was little need to formalize anything
about this procedure, nor to write down in detail whose hand and foot
would go where at what time. The problems that arose were usually too
ephemeral and specific to merit putting them in a written procedure.
It was simply better for the two individuals to work out the details
in whatever way seemed logical to them and guide each other in and out
of the hatch. The astronauts were not merely obedient slaves. They
were intelligent, innovative, integral parts of the mission planning
James Collier measured
an actual lunar module forward hatch and found it to be only 32 inches
wide. This is too narrow for a space-suited astronaut to pass
To be more accurate, Collier measured the hatch of a full-size mockup,
LTA-8A (Fig. 6), not a lunar module. LTA-8A was never intended to fly
in space. It's now on display at Space Center Houston suspended
several meters above visitors' heads. Collier took special note of
the curator's reaction when Collier asked him to provide a means of
reaching the display. (Apparently we're supposed to believe that the
curator was upset at having the hoax found out, not merely upset about
some journalist wanting to crawl all over his irreplaceable specimen.)
Measurements taken of the forward hatch of LM-13 (which was
intended to fly) confirm that the typical LM forward hatch is 32
Fig. 6 - Test article LTA-8A at Space Center Houston.
James Collier measured the forward hatch of this mockup.
Collier's choice of mockup turned out to be fortuitous. Not only
is LTA-8A's forward hatch the right size, one of LTA-8A's jobs in
Houston was to train astronauts for ingress and egress. To do this,
the entire mockup was placed in a vacuum chamber. Astronauts donned
space suits and backpacks and practiced going in and out of the hatch.
Apollo 15 astronaut Jim Irwin recalled his training on LTA-8A:
"I'm wondering if we ever did any ingress
training at one-sixth g. I don't think we did. I was
just surprised that I had such difficulty [with LM egress and ingress
on the moon], because I'd done a lot of practice in one g with the
backpack on because, originally, in the LTA-8 tests -- for the thermal
vacuum chamber -- they were going to use the PLSS under one-g
conditions. You know, climb the ladder and go through the hatch, just
like we do on the Moon. I'd done that several times and had no
difficulty. But you wouldn't have any difficulty in one g because the
weight of the PLSS on your back [is] so great and the suit, itself,
(also) compresses." (Comments to Eric Jones, ALSJ)
NASA retirees inform us that these vacuum chamber tests involved many
people working around the clock in three shifts. There are ample
witnesses to the ability of an astronaut to get through the forward
hatch of LTA-8A fully suited.
Astronauts aren't the only people who participated in LM
egress/ingress testing. Grumman engineers fine-tuned their LM design
in their own vacuum chambers using space-suited volunteers. Simply
too many people saw space-suited astronauts go in and out of the LM
forward hatch for there to be any credibility to the claim that it was
Fig. 7 - The face of a lunar module under construction
at Grumman. The large opening between the workers is the
forward hatch. (Frank Pullo)
Fig. 8 - A restoration volunteer sits in the forward
hatch of LM-13.
Bear in mind that Collier never actually tried to fit a
space suit through the hatch. He relied strictly on tape measurements
both of the hatch and of the suit.
Mary Bennett and David Percy (Dark Moon, p. 341) make the
same argument. They didn't test-fit a suit either. They used only
tape measurements, just as Collier did. Based on their measurements
they say egress would be "very difficult" and "rather a challenge."
Then a paragraph later -- without providing any additional evidence --
they call the task "clearly impossible."
But several people have
measured the space suits and found them to be 32 or so inches
wide. How could that fit through a 32-inch door?
Sometimes readers misinterpret this to mean the PLSS is too wide.
According to drawings we obtained from Hamilton-Standard, the company
that designed it, the PLSS was only 19 inches wide. Frank O'Brien, a
restorer at the Cradle of Aviation Museum, measured a Beta-cloth PLSS
cover in their collection; it's 20 inches wide -- just about right to
fit over a 19-inch PLSS. That easily fits through a 32-inch opening.
The conspiracist authors chiefly refer to the width of the suit
itself. They're careful to remind you that the suit is deflated for
their measurements; an inflated suit must be larger. The
conspiracists don't tell you about the restraint layer that keeps the suit
from bulging uncontrollably.
First, clothes without anyone in them tend to be wider -- not
narrower -- than occupied clothes. This is a straightforward matter
of geometry: when a fabric envelope is collapsed along one dimension,
it broadens along the other. The conspiracists always measure empty
They measure the suits at the widest point. That's quite
defensible if you want to see whether something will fit through an
opening. But the widest point in these photographs is a width that
doesn't really exist when the suit is being worn and when the
astronaut is on his hands and knees backing out of a spacecraft. The
suit arms in the conspiracist photos (e.g., Dark Moon, p. 341f,
photos 8, 9) hang from the shoulders as you would expect such a
garment to do while not being worn. This makes the elbows stick out
to either side. And the conspiracists measure from elbow to elbow --
about 32 inches. That dimension includes the width of the suit torso
plus the width of each of the sleeves.
But an astronaut on his hands and knees places his arms in front
of his face. Backing out of the hatch this way, his torso passes
through the hatch first and then his arms, so measuring them together
is wrong. The Apollo LM egress posture makes an astronaut's shoulders
the widest point. Looking at the photo provided by Bennett and Percy
(ibid., photo 8) showing a tape measure laid across an Apollo
suit, we see that the width of the shoulders (as determined by the
shoulder seams) is about 22 inches.
In Fig. A we show an adolescent's ski parka hung on a hanger and
measured in the conspiracists have used to measure space suits. The
width, from elbow to elbow, is XXX inches. As you can see, this
grossly exaggerates the working width of the garment. This is how the
conspiracists make the suit seem wider than it really is.
We also note that 32 inches is the standard width of an interior
door in American residences. This should give readers some practical
understanding of the LM forward hatch dimensions.
As Jim Irwin recounts above, the difficulty was not squeezing the
width of the suit through the hatch; it was the height. The PLSS is 8
inches thick and the forward hatch 32 inches tall, leaving 24 inches
for the astronaut and his inflated space suit. As Figures 1 and 2
show, the short distance between the hatch and the "shelf" for the
ascent engine cover meant the astronaut had get at least his legs out
of the hatch before he could assume a more prone position. The bottom
of the PLSS habitually hung up on the top lip of the hatch, or the
astronaut's suit snagged on something on the floor. In the practice
sessions in LTA-8A the astronaut was in full earth gravity, which
compressed his suit slightly more than it did on the moon. This is
why Irwin had more trouble than he imagined.
Conspiracists aim to convince their readers that LM ingress and
egress were impossible. But they can do no more than show it was
difficult. We agree it was difficult. As with all difficult things
in astronautics -- and there are many -- the key is practice. The
conspiracists attempt no actual trials nor do they see if egress is
something that improves with patience and repetition. They simply
make one pass with the tape measure and declare it to be impossible.
But author Ralph Rene
did an actual experiment. He used his dining room table to
approximate the lunar module hatch, and he loaded himself down with
the same volume as an Apollo suit. He couldn't fit under the
And this proves only that Ralph Rene can't fit under his dining
room table. It does not answer whether Apollo astronauts could fit
through the LM forward hatch. That was demonstrated many times in
vacuum chambers in front of many witnesses.
Why do some sources say
that the hatch is 42 inches wide instead of 32 inches? Is NASA trying
to correct its previous errors? [Bennett and Percy, op. cit.,
The authors do not specify which sources say this, nor whether
they are NASA or third party sources.
We are aware of only one source -- the New York Times --
that has reported the size of the LM forward hatch as 42 inches. And
this is the source that was cited at the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal
until its author was made aware of the Times' error. All the
period sources we've seen from NASA and Grumman (e.g., the Apollo 11
press kit, the Apollo News Reference, and the Lunar Module
Operations Handbook) give the dimensions of the lunar module
forward hatch as "approximately 32 inches square."
Clavius thanks Frank O'Brien who contributed to this
- One-sixth g training was done on the "Vomit Comet", the same
aircraft used for weightlessness training. To simulate one-sixth g,
the aircraft flew a shallower parabola. Because the lesser gravity
lasted only 30 seconds or so, lengthy or complicated procedures
couldn't be effectively rehearsed that way.