shadows at 45 degrees
Home page

Below are photographs of a rock taken from various distances away. The sun elevation in these photographs is approximately 12° comparable to the sun elevation in many Apollo lunar surface photographs. The terrain is reasonably flat and level. The camera is approximately 4 feet (1.5 m) above the surface, except in Fig. 1. The supine wooden stake in each photo identifies the horizontal aspect of the optical axis. Other photo sets are provided for shadow angles of approximately 15° and 30°.
Fig. 1 - View from directly overhead to establish actual shadow direction relative to optical axis.
Fig. 2 - View from approximately 10 meters away. The sun angle has not changed. The shadow is already beginning to show a significant horizontal appearance.
Fig. 3 - View from approximately 30 meters away. The sun angle has not changed. The shadow appears almost completely horizontal. Note also how the shaded portion of the rock blends with the shadow cast on the ground. In some cases this phenomenon will cause the viewer to mistake shade for shadow.

Prev Next